But before I get into literature, it is useful to start with a brief overview of the major developments that have taken place in the real world of international trade agreements since 1995. My goal is not to start a broad debate on these developments, but simply to create a stylized historical context for the literature I am going to study. With regard to the added benefit of a multilateral enforcement mechanism over an uncoordinated bilateral enforcement mechanism, Bowen (2013) introduces the concept of leniency that indicates the willingness of each government to tolerate a series of less favourable bilateral tariffs (i.e. their lower import duties than their bilateral partners) that depend on the realization of political shocks requiring such asymmetric duties for reasons of political efficiency. The basic structure of the business model developed by Bowen (2013) is similar to the multilateral business model of Maggi (1999), in which each country is a pair of products related to symmetrical relations, allowing a total separation of any bilateral trade relationship with the multilateral relationship. As maggi (1999) pointed out, multilateral application does not add value in relation to bilateral application against gaps if there is no asymmetry between countries. The second is classified bilateral (BTA) if it is signed between two pages, each side could be a country (or another customs territory), a trading bloc or an informal group of countries (or other customs sites). Both countries are relaxing their trade restrictions to help businesses prosper better between countries. It certainly helps to reduce taxes and helps them discuss their trade status. Generally, this is the weakened domestic industry. Industries, in particular, are covered by the automotive, oil and food sectors.
 I am thus completing my stylized portrait of recent developments in trade agreements, and it is in this context that I now turn to my discussion on the recent progress of the scientific literature on trade agreements. The third major development has been a huge acceleration in the implementation of regional trade agreements. For example, in the first ten years of the WTO (1995-2005), the number of regional trade agreements in force more than tripled from 58 to 188. Currently, there are a total of some 380 regional trade agreements and several potential new trade agreements are being negotiated, including one between the United States and the EU, which would be the largest regional trade agreement in the world. The most important general trade agreement is fairly simply referred to as a general agreement on tariffs and trade (GATT). The GATT was signed in October 1947 to liberalize trade, create a more liberal trade agreement management organization and establish a trade dispute resolution mechanism. The GATT organisation is small and is located in Geneva. More than 110 nations signed the general agreement, originally signed by 24 nations, including the United States. The role of GATT as an organization has been largely replaced by the World Trade Organization, which I refer to later in this section. The fourth and fifth developments are perhaps better described as non-development. Following the Uruguay Round, WTO member countries launched a new round of large-scale multilateral negotiations, the Doha Round.