While the negotiation process with the various trading partners is subject to some differences between the provisions of the different agreements, the essential elements of the chapters relating to the development of common trade with the development of common trade in the EU are maintained in all recent EU free trade agreements. This common approach can be defined with regard to substantive labour standards and procedural obligations, the institutional structures put in place and the way in which complaints are handled. Note 14 With regard to institutional structures, all chapters relating to development developments include the establishment of a joint committee composed of representatives of both parties and which will oversee the implementation of the relevant chapter. These include a civil society mechanism that brings together representatives of business, trade unions, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and, although not explicitly mentioned in the text of the S&D chapter, in domestic advisory groups (DAGs) in each of the trading partners. The chapters on social development also facilitate international dialogue between these DAGs and/or other civil society actors, both from the EU and its trading partners, within a Joint Civil Society Forum (CSF). See z.B. Kofi Addo, Core Labour Standards and International Trade (Springer 2015). As discussed below, these cases are rare when it comes to most trade agreements. 24 C. Malmström, `Responsible Supply Chains: What`s the EU Doing?`, European Commission, 7 December 2015, trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2015/december/tradoc_154020.pdf (called 23 March 2018). It is also essential to extend the scope of the provisions themselves to ensure effective implementation of labour legislation in key export sectors. Studies on global value chains and labour standards have shown that it is important to focus on ilo core labour standards, but that it is not sufficient to improve working conditions in many sectors.
a wider range of labour standards should also be used, including provisions on living wages, occupational health and safety, footnote 93 and working time; as well as migrant workers` rights – and pay particular attention to key issues such as the protection of workers in the informal economy, including through social protection instruments. Footnote 94 The scientific literature was the most important on this subject in early debates on the relationship between trade and labour, see z.B. Compa and Diamond (n 13). . . .